Artificial Intelligence (AI) history
The idea of AI goes back to the classical ages. Under Greek mythology the concept of machines and mechanical men who well thought of. An example is Talos. Talos was supposedly a giant animated bronze warrior who was programmed to guard the island of ‘crete’. “Artificial Intelligence Is”
Now let’s get back to the 19th century. In1950 Alan Turing proposed the Turing test. Turing test basically determines whether or not a computer can intelligently think like a human being. The Turing check was the primary serious proposal within the philosophy of computing.
1951 marked the era for game artificial intelligence. This period was called “game AI” because there are a lot of computer scientists who developed programs with checkers and pictures. However, these programs were later rewritten and redone in a better way.
In 1956 John McCarthy first coined the term "artificial intelligence."
- 1956 marks the most important year for artificial intelligence.
- This followed by the first AI laboratory which was set up in 1959. MIT AI lab was the first set up which was basically dedicated to the research of AI.
- In 1960 the first robot introduced to the general motors assembly line.
- 1961 the first AI chatbot call Elisa introduced.
- In 1997 IBM’s Deep blue beats the world champion Garry Kasparov in the game of chess.
- 2005 marks the year when an autonomous robotic car called Stanley won the DARPA Grand Challenge.
- In 2011 IBM’s question-answering machine Wattsin defeated the two greatest Jeopardy champions Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings. So that was a brief history of AI.
since the emergence of artificial intelligence in the 1950s, we have seen exponential growth in its potential. AI covers domains such as machine learning deep learning, neural networks, natural language processing, knowledge-based expert system, and so on. Now that you know a brief history of artificial intelligence.
What exactly AI is?
The term artificial intelligence was first coined by John McCarthy as I mentioned earlier. He defined AI as a science and engineering of making intelligent machines. In other words, artificial intelligence can also be defined as” the development of computer systems that are capable of performing tasks that require human intelligence such as decision-making, object detection, solving complex problems and so on”.
AI intelligence helps in decision making, solving complex problems it forms high-level competitions, and also increases the accuracy of your predictions. These are the main features of AI.
Different stages of artificial intelligence
1) artificial narrow intelligence
2) artificial general intelligence
3)artificial super intelligence
What is artificial narrow intelligence?
Artificial narrow intelligence and also known as “weak AI“. This stage of artificial intelligence involved machines that can perform only a narrowly defined set of specific tasks. Right at the stage, the machines don’t possess any thinking ability.
They just perform a set of predefined functions. Examples of weak AI include Siri, Alexa, AlphaGo, Sophia, self-driving cars, and so on. Almost all the AI-based systems that built till the state fall under the category of weak AI or Artificial narrow intelligence.
What is artificial general intelligence?
Artificial general intelligence also called “strong AI”. This stage is the evolution of intelligence wherein machines will possess the ability to think and make decisions just like human beings. At currently there are no existing examples of strong AI, but it’s believed that we will soon able to create machines that are as smart as human beings.
Strong AI actually considered a threat to human existence by many scientists this includes Stephen Hawking. Stephen Hawking quoted that “the development of full Artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race”.
What is artificial super intelligence?
Artificial Superintelligence is that stage of AI when the capability of computers will surpass human beings. Artificial superintelligence saw as a hypothetical situation as depicted in movies and science fiction books. You see a lot of movies show that machines are taking over the world all of that is Artificial superintelligence.
I believe the machines are not very far from reaching the stage taking into consideration a current base, however, such systems don’t currently exist right we know have any machine that is capable of Thinking better than a human being or reasoning in a better way than a human. Artificial Superintelligence basically any robot that is much smarter than humans.
Types of Artificial Intelligence
Based on the functionality of AI-based systems artificial intelligence categorized into four types
1) Reactive machines AI
This type includes machines that operate solely based on the present data and take into consideration the current situation. Reactive AI machines cannot form inferences from the data to evaluate any future actions. They can perform a narrow range of predefined tasks. An example of reactive AI is the famous IBM just program that beat the world champion, Garry Kasparov. This one of the most impressive machine belts so far.
2) limited memory AI
like the name suggests limited memory can make informed and improve decisions by studying the pass data from its memory. Such an AI has a short-lived you can say or temporary memory that use to store past experiences and hence evaluate your future actions. Self-driving cars example limited memory AI that uses the data collected in the recent past to make immediate decisions.
for example, self-driving cars used sensors to identify civilians that are crossing the road. They identify any stiff roads or traffic signals and use them to make better driving decisions. This also helps in preventing any future accidents.
3) Theory of mind AI
It is a more advanced type of artificial intelligence. This category speculated to play a very important role in psychology. This type of AI can principally concentrate on emotional intelligence so human believes and thoughts will be higher appreciated. The idea of mind AI has not been totally developed, however rigorous analysis is occurring during this space.
4) self Aware intelligence
I hope that we never reach this stage of AI where machines have their own consciousness and become self-aware. This type of AI is a little fat fetch but in the future achieving a stage of superintelligence might be possible. A genius like Elon Musk and Stephen Hawking have constantly warned us about the evolution of AI.
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What are the different domains of AI or different branches of AI?
AI can be used to solve real-world problems by implementing machine learning, deep learning, natural language processing, robotics, expert systems, and fuzzy logic. These are the different domains or you can see the different branches that AI uses in order to solve any problem. Recently AI also been used as an application in computer vision and image processing.
* Machine Learning
is basically the science of getting machines to interpret process and analyze data in order to solve real-world problems. On machine learning the supervise and unsupervised and reinforcement learning.
* Deep Learning or Neural Networks
Deep learning is the process of implementing neural networks on high dimensional data to gain insights and forms solutions. It is essentially the logic behind the face verification rule on Facebook. it’s the logic behind self-driving cars, virtual assistants like Siri and Alexa.
* Natural language processing
Natural language processing refers to the science of drawing insights from natural human language in order to communicate with machines and grow business. So an example of NLP is Twitter and Amazon.Twitter uses NLP to filter out terroristic language in the tweets. Amazon uses NLP to grasp client reviews and improve user expertise.
Robotics is a branch of artificial intelligence that focuses on the different branches and applications of robots. AI robots are Artificial agents that act in the real world environment to produce results by taking some accountable actions. Sofia is a humanoid. It is a very good example of AI in robotics.
It is the computing approach based on the principle of the degree of truth instead of the usual modern logic that we use which is basically Boolean logic. fuzzy logic used in medical fields to solve complex problems that involved decision making. It is also used in automating gear systems in your cars and all of them.
- Expert systems
an expert system is an AI-based computer system that learns and reciprocate the decision-making ability of a human expert. Expert systems use if-then logic notions in order to solve any complex problem. They do not rely on conventional procedural programming. Expert systems mainly used in information management. They seemed to be used in fraud detection, virus detection also and managing medical and hospital records, and so on.
What are the employment opportunities?
1) The fact that “employment opportunities within the field of artificial intelligence” could be a matter of concern. This is because the main purpose of this technology is to take work from man and give it to machines. While it is natural to find job opportunities in this field, it is ironic. But since no one will be able to keep up with the pace of technology, everyone needs to find employment opportunities in it on their own.
2) It is very easy to assimilate some things with a computer and to interact with a person through it. For example, a computer may be able to calculate the dose of a drug after a period of time by measuring the patient’s physical condition, but it is difficult for the computer to predict the movement of the patient’s mental state.
3) Naturally, people in other regions are less likely to be affected by artificial intelligence than in the first region.
4) The other side of this is that those who want to work in the field of intelligence need to study in depth by focusing on one of the various technologies mentioned earlier.
5) For this, one of the main computer language used is Python, R, Lisp, Prolog and Java. It is necessary to assimilate the things related to the technology of artificial intelligence in language.
AI is a very vast field with lots of possibilities and scope. Please let me know your thoughts in the comments section about your favorite type of AI.