telescope
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There are various types of telescope.

A telescope is an object which is used to see a distant object clearly. Especially it is used to see the moon, planets, galaxy, and universe.

We have learned in our school that everything in this universe is made up of atoms. Like that our earth is also a  small infinite small particle in this universe. In our universe there are trillions of Galaxies and each galaxy and each galaxy contains billions of stars.

Our  Milky Way contains between 100 and 400 billion stars and at least that many planets. So we huge telescope to explore this infinite universe. Let’s begin our journey.

Hubble Telescope

Today the biggest telescope around our earth is Hubble Telescope.

Hubble telescope circling 550 kilometers above the surface of the Earth, this famous astronomical device has shown us every single view of remote space for the past 30 years.

hubble telescope
Hubble telescope

It sent pictures that revolutionized our understanding of the universe, and by sending pictures that showed us that our universe is expanding faster than we understand, but a Hubble Telescope as big as a school bus is so far away from Earth and how  it  is circling.


The problem for a telescope on earth.


 Astronomers explain this by placing  an underwater camera inside it. It is a problem to see the telescope on the ground going through the Earth’s atmosphere to go into space. Because the Earth’s atmosphere is an unstable medium.

I am sitting just like I am sitting at the bottom of a swimming pool. If the upper surface of the water is not stable at all, there will be waves in it, then I will not see the true picture of the outside world. One can compare this with the telescope looking from Earth to space. 

Telescope at the Atacama Desert

But now the Hubble telescope will have to compete with a telescope on the ground, the most powerful telescope of the European Space Observatory in the inaccessible desert of the Atacama in Chile, the conditions here look exactly like Mars. Situated at an altitude of 2600 meters above sea level, this place is ideal for viewing stars. We are working in a unique environment.

This humidity is often less than 10%. If you spend the whole day outside, you can die due to dehydration from breathing. Astronomers and technicians live in a building called “Residencia”. In these difficult conditions far away from human civilization. This hotel is specially designed for science and research.

There is a swimming pool not for fun but it is intended to keep the moisture inside the building. At night the dome of the building is covered so that no light causes problems for the highly sensitive telescopes working here. During No Moon night, the Atacama Desert is so dark that the Milky Way Galaxy is very clearly visible. types of a telescope in 2021

How does it work?

In this environment, giant telescopes with 8 meter wide mirrors are being prepared for observation. Scientists from all over the world want to see space through this telescope, then what it looks like is not science but Star Wars. The laser beam emits from the telescope. These laser beams help astronomers accurately measure the deflection in the atmosphere and compensate for it by an idea.

In the method, an artificial star is prepared at an altitude of about 90 km which jumps back and forth at a very high frequency, due to which the telescope itself corrects the incoming distortion. There is a mirror in the path of the beam and it adjusts according to the disturbances present in the atmosphere and corrects the disturbances.

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Due to this technology, the size of this telescope becomes unlimited, the largest telescope in the world is being built nearby in which the main mirror will be 39 meters wide. The 8-meter telescope has a light-collecting surface of about 50 square meters. The 40-meter telescope has a surface of 1000 square meters. This is a big difference.

The photo is 4 times better but our eyes can see more than our eyes can see. Much more exists in this universe, the electromagnetic spectrum ranges from very short wave gamma rays to long radio waves, and astronomers need separate telescopes for all types of wavelengths.

Radio Telescope

The world’s most powerful radio telescope stands here 5000 meters above sea level in Chile’s Shakhnantar Plateau. Its name is Elma and it is a group of more than 60 telescopes. Their work is to listen to the sounds originating in outer space. Workers move the antenna  from one place to another place. For working here need oxygen because the air is very low.

The advantage of being at such a height is that no water vapor will obstruct the view of the sky in the night but the giant with 66 telescopes. The Alma telescope is also not enough for astronomers, which is why they have created the Event Horizon Telescope by combining radio observatories around the world. The radio telescope at the South Pole is connected to the network. Astronomers around the world use complex calculations have greatly combined all the smaller receivers into one huge network.

radio telescope
radio telescope

Thanks to this project, scientists were able to take a picture of a ” black hole ” for the first time last year, but our atmosphere becomes a big obstacle in collecting certain information from the universe as if it prevents one of the infrared spectra, such heat radiation especially astrophysics arousing enthusiasm among scientists, it also permeates the dust clouds of the galaxy as if many new stars have been born here. Ironically, this light covers a distance of several billion light-years without interruption but breaks in the last few hundred kilometers. 

Flying Observatory

To catch this radiation, astronomers will need a special telescope in space or can also use a flying observatory. Sophia is a 747 jumbo jet inside which infrared telescopes can see it with astronomers in space from a height of 14 kilometers.

Even now we have not been able to see the things present in space, yet we have not been able to see everything present in the space, we are in the stage of discovery. It is always clear when we develop a new telescope or observation method that we did not have before. With every new instrument, the astrophysicists realize how little they knew about the universe before.

Conclusion 

We humans now also don’t know many things about our space or it will be better if I say “we don’t know anything about space” because space is very infinite. I urge all of the humans please don’t create pollution (air pollution)  this creates additional obstacles in the path while looking through the telescope.

In such small ways, we can help scientists for our better future. To increase the interest of students in astronomy, try to arrange a trip to any science observatory,  science exhibition, or any research lab.

By Pravin

I'm an engineering student...

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